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Old 07-03-2019, 04:59 PM   #6131 (permalink)
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What is the overall implication of the model imprecision? That's what we need to understand.
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"The increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Age is estimated to produce an extra 3.7 watts of energy per square meter. “The error here is half of that, so in that sense it becomes substantial,” Porporato said."
They are staying within the lanes of projected increase, just veering to one side. This is becoming less fun for me, 'by orders of magnitude'.

Remember how you can go snow-blind on the Bonneville Salt Flats? That's Fresnel.

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Old 07-03-2019, 05:15 PM   #6132 (permalink)
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dark matter

In 1937,Fritz Zwicky,at Cal Tech,first published about 'dark matter',working with the Virial Theorem of Rudolf Clausius,from 1870.Kinetic energy to potential energy was too far off,requiring a missing mass/hidden mass to explain it.
In 1970,Vera Rubin,observing galactic rotation and steller orbital velocities found discrepancies which suggested the necessity of missing mass to explain it.
Visible searches yielded nothing.Radio astronomy yielded nothing.Infrared spectroscopy yielded nothing.The Hubble Space Telescope has allowed for Cosmic,gravitational lensing and has detected hundreds of regions of dark matter,of which maps have been generated.
Stars,dust,and gas can not account for this mass.
A theory of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) was proposed.However,the observation of 'Bullet Clusters' violated the MOND theory,a key piece of evidence that Newtonian Physics and Gravity is right on,as of 2013.
Electrons and protons couldn't explain the mass.Those can be detected.
Dark energy is known by it's gravitational effects and the expansion of the universe.It's density doesn't change.As the universe expands there's more of it.Electrons and protons can be detected,they don't explain dark energy.
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Old 07-03-2019, 05:24 PM   #6133 (permalink)
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CO2

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Originally Posted by freebeard View Post
They are staying within the lanes of projected increase, just veering to one side. This is becoming less fun for me, 'by orders of magnitude'.

Remember how you can go snow-blind on the Bonneville Salt Flats? That's Fresnel.
They mention CO2.What about methane.What about nitrous oxide,What about chlorflourocarbons? What about water vapor itself,the chief greenhouse gas?
And what about sulfate aerosols which are cooling the planet?
If they can cover and account for these contributions,that's great! If not,they're just whistling past the graveyard.
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Old 07-03-2019, 05:41 PM   #6134 (permalink)
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What about methane.What about nitrous oxide,What about chlorflourocarbons? What about water vapor itself,the chief greenhouse gas?
And what about sulfate aerosols which are cooling the planet?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whataboutism

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Dark energy is known [only] by it's gravitational effects and the expansion of the universe.It's density doesn't change.As the universe expands there's more of it.
Back to that? The expansion of Universe is a misapprehension of the red-shift observations. There are structurally conjoined features with vastly different red-shifts, un-explainable as expansion.

The ability to sense low-temperature gases and dust has improved recently.
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Old 07-03-2019, 06:20 PM   #6135 (permalink)
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what about/cosmology

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Originally Posted by freebeard View Post
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whataboutism



Back to that? The expansion of Universe is a misapprehension of the red-shift observations. There are structurally conjoined features with vastly different red-shifts, un-explainable as expansion.

The ability to sense low-temperature gases and dust has improved recently.
I bring it up,since they didn't mention any of it.Other journal articles in NATURE,SCIENCE that I've read brought the interdisciplinary material into the presentation.They speak as if no one's considered what they've done in the past 45-years.Perhaps their original paper goes into greater length.Don't know.Typically,there will be hundreds of citations from prior research.
Sure,everything can be improved,and is over time.
Glad you're okay with re-learning everything about cosmology every six years.I think I've lost all interest in it,if they can be this fickle.
I suppose the astronomers who've measured things will be surprised that their entire careers were just hallucinations.
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Old 07-03-2019, 06:49 PM   #6136 (permalink)
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2019 Tropical Cyclone scoreboard

*55 tropical systems
*32 named storms
*1,505 killed
*$5.35-billion (US) in losses
*Tropical Storm Pabuk,the earliest-forming storm of the Western Pacific Ocean on record.
*Typhoon Wutip,the most-intense typhoon recorded for February
*Cyclone Lili was off-season
*Cyclone Ann was off-season
*The Atlantic hurricane season started early for the 5th year in a row
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Old 07-05-2019, 05:06 PM   #6137 (permalink)
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science.slashdot.org/story/.../tree-planting-has-mind-blowing-potential-to-tackle-climate-crisis

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Good article with some near misses (Score:5, Informative)
by Dasher42 ( 514179 ) on Thursday July 04, 2019 @10:30PM (#58875434)

This article was on the brink of covering some really important topics that could simultaneously resolve our climate issues and reform our agricultural system to bring it into better harmony with the land and its natural cycles.

For example, it suggested that two or three trees in every cow pasture would help. Project Drawdown (https://www.drawdown.org) goes further, and describes silvopasture, mixing sparse forest with grazing animals, as an old practice ripe for revival that, for an estimated $41.59 billion USD net implementation cost worldwide, would yield $699.37 billion USD in savings. This is one of many approaches that make sense when one draws on ecosystems for inspiration for designing systems that can support human life, without wrecking the planet.

Drawdown's write-ups are significant because they represent a lot of research and solid estimates of what the costs and benefits are of many approaches that, in unison, could resolve the climate crisis.

Other significant write-ups:

https://www.drawdown.org/solut... [drawdown.org] (Basic forest-planting as most people think of it)
https://www.drawdown.org/solut... [drawdown.org] (Restoring tropical rainforests)
https://www.drawdown.org/solut... [drawdown.org] (Biochar, which if you research leads into a fascinating revival of the creation of carbonaceous soils which better retain water and nutrients, while sequestering CO2 more rapidly than forests and is immediately applicable to our grasslands and plains)
https://www.drawdown.org/solut... [drawdown.org] (Multistrata agroforestry...)
https://www.drawdown.org/solut... [drawdown.org] (Tree polyculture which conveys benefits for resilience, resistance to pests, soil health, and multiple yields from the same land)

Towards the end of that list you might notice a theme of pursuing polycultures in agriculture, which 20th century industrial agriculture eschewed for obvious reasons. Might we not revisit that? A combination of ancient polycultural techniques which allowed complementary plant species to maintain long-term yields and new levels of AI-guided farming may well finally unite our ancient and current knowledge and help solve this crisis.
Notice the Slashdot comment moderation. The social media could take a clue.
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Old 07-06-2019, 09:33 AM   #6138 (permalink)
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Thorcon has completely updated their website to show how they can build fully functioning and tested 500 MWe molten salt nuclear electrical plants in normal shipyards and then tow them into place, anywhere there are navigable waterways. Design – ThorCon
 
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Old 07-06-2019, 10:08 AM   #6139 (permalink)
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Complete shipyard construction will drastically bring down the cost. Modular cores are switch out every 4 years to refurbish the moderator at a factory. Fuel is switched out and reprocessed every 8 years at a factory. Fuel can be 4% Uranium, mox, 20% Uranium with Thorium, ect. Completely walk away safe indefinitely with no human intervention. The core operates at just 3 bar pressure. Uses standard 650C turbines. Standard 700C molten salt load following as is well known from thermal solar plants can be added to vary the output from 0%-200%-0%.
 
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Old 07-06-2019, 10:24 AM   #6140 (permalink)
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To put the energy density of nuclear into perspective: .3 cubic meters/ 11 cubic feet of fissile material powers the 500 MWe reactor for a year. This is a 2.5 foot square box.

 
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