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Old 01-13-2021, 11:03 AM   #3 (permalink)
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For those not wanting to google--
1) "Formulae for the Tractive-Energy Requirements of Vehicles Driving the EPA Schedules" (1981)

A comprehensive analysis of the tractive-energy requirements of the EPA Urban and Highway driving schedules has been made. The results are compact formulae in which the specific tractive energy required to negotiate a schedule is correlated primarily with the ratio of effective aerodynamic frontal area to vehicle mass; the tire rolling resistance coefficients are additional variables. The formulae coefficients permit easy determination of the proportions of the Input energy required for overcoming the aerodynamic and rolling resistances, and for supplying the net powered increases in vehicle kinetic energy, respectively. The specific energy dissipated by braking has also been formulated.

2) "Tractive-Energy-Based Formulae for the Impact of Aerodynamics on Fuel Economy Over the EPA Driving Schedules" (1983)

A fuel consumption analysis has been made to determine the impact of changes in aerodynamic drag on fuel economy over the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) driving schedules. It is based on the tractive energy required by vehicles to negotiate those schedules — specifically, on the fraction that is required to overcome drag. Formulae for this energy fraction that are applicable to any automobile have been previously derived. In conjunction with empirical inputs on closed-throttle fuel rate and the fuel consumption fraction for engine and vehicle accessories, an expression for the aerodynamic influence coefficient relating any percentage reduction in drag to the corresponding attainable percentage reduction in on-road fuel consumption has been formulated. The simple formula is used to show the effect of drag changes of various magnitude on EPA Urban, Highway, and Composite fuel consumptions. The equivalent reductions in vehicle mass and tire rolling-resistance coefficient required to produce the same fuel saving are also shown.

Last edited by Vman455; 01-13-2021 at 11:06 AM.. Reason: Added abstracts
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