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Old 02-27-2009, 02:26 PM   #25 (permalink)
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Sorry about the long wait this seems to be all I can find for the Miles transmission

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Anyway out of one of the "modules"

Module 12:
Motor & Transmission

Traction Motor
The electric motor is a device used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. When electricity is supplied to the motor, it produces mechanical motion. A good example is the starter motor on an internal combustion engine. When the ignition key is turned to the start position, the starter relay or solenoid closes to allow electric power from the battery to flow to the starter motor. It then produces mechanical motion to spin the engine. The same thing happens when the Miles ZX40S is operated.
How does the motor convert the electric power to mechanical rotation? All motors use magnetism that is created by current flowing through a wire. Any time current flows through a wire, a magnetic field is produced around that wire. Wires wrapped into coils increase the strength of the magnetic fields. These coils are used in a motor to pull the armature in a circular motion.
Because of the short length of this course, we will not delve into the theoretical operation of electric motors.
EV Motor Types
There are two general classifications of motors. The one used in the ZX40S is a Changzhou Huasheng direct current (DC) motor, part number XQ-6.3/6H. The other type is an alternating current (AC) motor, which we will not cover.
Brush Type DC Motors
Brush type DC motors use a commutator to switch the direction of current flow. Switching the current flow is what keeps the motor rotating. The commutator is the device on the armature that the brushes rub on. You have probably seen one on a starter motor.
While all brush type DC motors use a commutator and brush setup to switch current flow, there are different types of brushed motors. The primary difference that determines the type of brushed motor is how the armature and field coils are connected together. The field coils are stationary coils of wire around the housing of the motor that create a strong magnetic field to pull the armature around.
Brush type motors can be divided into three major groups (1) series wound, (2) shunt wound motors, and (3) compound wound motors. The ZX40S has a series wound motor.

Personal Safety
Your personal safety must come first. Never risk your life or livelihood with unsafe practices. If you find yourself in a dangerous situation that you cannot rectify on your own, notify your supervisor.
Wear Appropriate Work Clothing
· Wear clothing and safety equipment appropriate to the job. Close-fitting, natural fabric clothing is a good choice since polyester melts and adheres to the skin when exposed to electrical arcs.
· Wear proper eye protection, especially when using power tools.
· Wear a suitable hearing protection device, such as earplugs, to protect against objectionable or uncomfortable loud noises. Prolonged exposure to loud noise can cause impairment or loss of hearing.
· Do not play audio devices with headphones while operating a machine. Operating equipment safely requires the full attention of the operator.
· Tie long hair behind your head. Do not wear a necktie, scarf, loose clothing, or necklace when you work near machine tools or other moving parts which could entangle these objects.
· Remove rings, watches, necklaces, and other metallic items from your body to prevent electrical shorts and entanglements in moving parts.
Use Appropriate Tools and Equipment
· Keep your tools and equipment clean and in good condition.
· Make sure you have all the necessary tools, equipment, and protective devices to do your job.
· Use tools appropriate for the work. Makeshift tools and procedures create safety hazards.
· Use the correct size tool for loosening and tightening hardware. Use power tools to loosen threaded parts and fasteners when appropriate.
· Never use U.S. measurement tools on metric fasteners, or vice versa.
· Avoid bodily injury caused by slipping wrenches.
· Follow the manufacturer’s recommended procedures for removal and installation of components. Refer to the appropriate manuals when necessary.
High-Voltage Safety Precautions
Electrical safety is foremost when working on the Miles ZX40S because these vehicles operate at high voltage. Maintenance should, therefore, always be performed by a trained professional, and precautions should be taken to eliminate the possibility of accidental contact with high-voltage sources like electronic controllers, battery chargers, and test equipment.
Electronic controllers, battery chargers, and test equipment have high-voltage components that can be lethal. Some examples of these components are capacitors, contactors, shunts, resistors, and exposed terminals. Caution must be taken when discharging the capacitors and when insulating exposed terminals.
Unlike other components for energy storage, batteries cannot be de-energized for maintenance and troubleshooting procedures. There is ALWAYS voltage present at the terminals of the battery cell/module. When battery modules are connected in series the hazard of a shock is greatly increased because the voltage levels rise to lethal potential.
Precautions should also be taken to eliminate the possibility of accidental contact with high-voltage sources when training personnel, insulating the affected component parts, or installing warning labels and signs. Safety protection should be worn when working in close proximity to a high-voltage source, so rubber gloves and approved safety glasses and/or a face shield should always be used.
High-Voltage Hazards
High-voltage levels present on the Miles ZX40S can cause severe burns, muscle contractions, shock, or death. The high voltage is isolated from earth ground and chassis ground under normal circumstances. You must touch both a positive and negative point in the circuit in order to receive an electric shock.
Arcing occurs when electricity is discharged across a circuit gap. The heat at the ends of an arc can be four times the surface temperature of the sun. Severe burns can be caused when a person is near or in contact with an arc. Additionally, an arc can cause an electric blast. The blast is the expansion of the air and molten metal, usually copper, from the rapid heating that takes place.
Even a small amount of current can cause body tissue damage. This damage is caused by heat generated from current flow. When the heat passes a point where it can be dissipated, the body tissue is burned.
High-voltage electric shock can cause acute muscle contractions. A current of only 10 milliamperes (mA) can cause muscles to contract. Hands that are exposed to enough electrical current clinch tight and cannot release their grip.
Fibrillation, the disruption of the body’s normal heartbeat, can be caused by electrical shock. The current must pass through the body (for example, through a hand-to-hand connection) in order for fibrillation to occur.
To ensure safety and reduce the risk of high-voltage shock, use the following procedures:
· Never work on high voltage when you are alone. Someone else should be present in case an emergency arises.
· Never work in wet or damp areas.
· Remove all jewelry and metallic items from your body, including rings, watches, and necklaces.
· Wear approved high-voltage gloves.
· Use insulated tools when servicing battery packs. Inspect tools regularly for damaged insulation.
· Use only one hand when possible.
· DO NOT touch any component that you cannot positively identify.
· Never assume that no voltage is present; check it with a known good meter or other test device.
· Never lay tools (like wrenches, crimping/lug pliers, screwdrivers), test equipment (like meters), or any conductive material on any high-voltage component or battery pack.
· Do not allow metallic materials to simultaneously contact both terminals.
· Never try to bypass or override a safety device, such as an interlock, unless specified to do so with an approved tool as described in the manufacturer’s procedures.
· Before performing work on a battery, make sure that battery-charging equipment is disconnected and any potential DC load is disconnected.
· Cover that portion of the battery not requiring physical maintenance when the traction battery is exposed for the purpose of repairs, maintenance, or testing. Covering the battery is a precaution taken to prevent personal injury as a result of electric shock. The battery should be covered with an approved insulating material such as a rubber blanket designed for this purpose.

Motor Test Procedures
The traction motor operates on high voltage; therefore, all previously described high-voltage safety procedures should be used when testing or repairing the motor. Most EV motor testing is done with the motor removed from the power, thus eliminating the HV concerns. Care should be taken and all HV safety procedures observed when testing a motor that is connected to its power source. It is also important to disable the HV before removing a motor for testing or inspection. EV motors do not normally have capacitors in them; so once they are disconnected, there should be no HV present.
Test Procedures
The Miles ZX40S uses a brush type DC motor that must be periodically checked for brush wear and commutator condition. When inspecting brushes, you should ensure that the brushes move freely within the brush holders. The springs that apply pressure to the brushes must do so uniformly and at the correct tension. Brush tension and adjustment procedures are specified by the motor manufacturer.

The brushes should be checked to see if they are making good contact with the surface of the commutator. The surface of the brush that contacts the commutator is known as the brush face. The brush face should have a smooth, polished look across its entire surface and should be in contact with the commutator across the entire face.

Over time, the brushes wear down. This is normal and expected. Check the amount of wear remaining on the brush and compare the measurement to the motor manufacturer’s specifications for replacement. If the brush is getting close to its wear limit, it is better to go ahead and replace it than to try and get the most wear out of it. The danger is that when the brush wears down too much, it damages the commutator surface leading to an expensive repair.

The commutator should be inspected when the brushes are checked. It should appear clean, smooth, and somewhat polished. A slight brownish or caramel color is acceptable in the area where the brushes make contact.

If the commutator is grooved or pitted, it must be repaired by a motor repair facility or replaced. Very minor roughness of the commutator can be sanded with fine grit sandpaper (no emery cloth) to smooth the surface if this procedure is acceptable to the manufacturer.

All types of motors may need to have their windings tested at some point. Windings can be checked with an ohmmeter from one end connection to the other to make sure they are not open. Since windings are nothing more than a wire wrapped around in circles, there should be very little resistance in a good winding.

A common fault with motor windings is that they either partially or fully short to the motor case. A short causes poor or no motor performance and an HV to chassis leakage condition. A megger, as described earlier, is used to test for any breakdown in the winding’s insulation.
To take the measurement, one lead of the megger is connected to one winding terminal, while the other megger lead is connected to the motor’s case. Then use the megger to apply the HV to the circuit, and it will give a reading in ohms of the resistance between the windings and the case. Compare the reading to the manufacturer’s specifications.
Troubleshooting Procedures
Troubleshooting the Miles ZX40S should be done according to manufacturer’s procedures. Always follow the specified procedures and use the proper tools when diagnosing and repairing these vehicles.
Propulsion System Troubleshooting
Even reliable electric vehicles sometimes fail to start or to drive. Just as there is a sequence of procedures that should be followed to find the cause of an ICE not starting—such as checking for ignition spark and fuel first—there is a sequence to find the cause of a Miles ZX40S operating failure.
The Miles ZX40S has two batteries systems: a high-voltage traction battery pack (72-volt) that supplies energy to the traction motor that powers the wheels and a 12-volt auxiliary battery that supplies energy to start the vehicle and run the accessories. Proper voltage is fundamental to the operation of the Miles ZX40S. Voltage from the traction batteries must be available and sufficient to power the vehicle, and voltage from the auxiliary battery must be available and sufficient to start the vehicle by closing the main contactor. These are the first things to check on a Miles ZX40S that does not start or drive:
1. Check the auxiliary battery voltage at its terminals. The voltage should be at least 12.0 volts. If the voltage is low, charge the battery and test it. Also, check the DC/DC converter to ensure that it is providing a charge to the auxiliary battery.
2. Check the traction battery voltage at the input to the DC/DC converter.
3. Once the presence of sufficient traction pack and auxiliary battery voltage is established, determine whether the main contactor is working. The voltage on the traction pack is the potential that must flow to the controller for the vehicle to operate.
4. You can test the contactor by turning on the ignition switch and listening for the click sound of the contactor closing. But don’t rely on the click. Check the voltage on the output of the contactor regardless of whether or not you heard the click.
5. If no voltage is available at the contactor’s output, check to see if the coil of the contactor is receiving the 12.0 or more volts needed to close it. If the voltage to the coil is present, replace the contactor and check its output voltage. If no voltage is present at the coil, then the ignition circuit from the auxiliary battery to the contactor coil must be checked for a circuit. Check not only the wiring and ignition switch, but any lockouts as well, such as a charging or accelerator lockout relay that might be stuck open. Refer to the vehicle’s wiring diagram so that you can trace the ignition circuit completely.
6. When voltage is present at the contactor output, check for open circuits in the cable from the contactor output to the controller input. If you are certain that the controller has a voltage supply, check its output. This should be done according to the controller output test procedures. If the controller is producing the proper output, then check the motor or driveline. If the controller has no output, then the problem could be a fault with a signal that is required for the controller to operate. Required signals include the throttle potentiometer, high pedal lockout, charging lockout, and drive position signals as well as others.
7. First, check the throttle potentiometer and the drive selection switch. If the controller is receiving all the necessary signals and has input voltage but no output, replace the controller.
Traction Motor Maintenance
It is a good practice to periodically check the motor because problems that cause motor failure usually develop over a fairly long period of time. By identifying these problems early, motor failures can be eliminated. Every six months, do the following:
· Inspect the connections to and from the motor for tightness, corrosion, and discoloration
· Check the mounting bolts and brackets of the motor for tightness.
Once a year, do the following:
· Inspect the motor bearings. If the motor is not removed from the vehicle, listening carefully to the bearings as the motor rotates in a quiet environment will usually reveal a bad bearing by a rough sound.
· Check the lubrication of the bearing.

Motor and Transmission Safety Procedures

Safety Equipment:
Safety glasses
Properly-rated electrical safety gloves
Electrical tape

Motor and Transmission Safety Procedures:
· Use insulated tools when possible. However, insulated tools DO NOT create a hazard-free working environment alone.
· Technicians MUST proceed as though they are working with non-insulated tools. This continued attitude will ensure that a safe working environment is maintained.
· NOTE: When using insulated tools, always check the manufacturer ratings for their tools.
· SAFETY NOTE: Make sure the insulated tools are rated for at least a 72-volt system.
· Wear appropriate work clothing.
· Use appropriate tools and equipment for the job.
· Never use U.S. measurement tools on metric fasteners, or vice versa.
· Maintain a safe working environment.
· Keep the service area clean and dry.
· Understand each service procedure before beginning any work.
· Understand all chemical safety precautions and procedures in case of accidental contact with acid.
· It is strongly recommended that you review the Safety Procedures that are listed in the Safety and Multi-Meter Module.

Motor and Transmission Diagnostic Procedures

Safety Equipment:
Safety glasses
Properly-rated electrical safety gloves
Electrical tape

Tool Box:
Metric tool set

The front wheel propulsion for the Miles ZX40S is provided by a transaxle assembly combination of the XQ-6.3/6H DC traction motor and a 4-speed manual transmission, which is permanently locked into 2nd gear. For these reasons, there are no replacement issues with either of the components. The transmission can still be rebuilt, but all of the shift linkage have been removed.

· Use proper vehicle lifting methods set forth by both the lift manufacturer and the lift procedures already established in the Lifting Module.
· The use of pneumatics is allowed on everything except for the batteries and the motor.

Diagnostic Procedures for Motor:
1. Check the batteries (see Traction Battery Module).
2. Check the ignition.
NOTE: If you turn the key and the Instrument Panel lights up and you hear the vacuum pump, then the ignition is okay.
3. Check the controller (see Controller System Module).
4. Check the DC/DC converter (see DC/DC Converter Module).
5. Check to see if all of the wiring is still connected and working properly.
6. Check motor brushes (see Motor Brush Module).
7. If a problem still exists, check the motor.

Logic Trees

Diagnostic Procedures for Transmission:
1. Check to make sure the brakes are properly working.
2. Check to see if the direction switch on the dash is working properly.
3. Check to see if the short shafts are fuctional.
NOTE: You will hear a loud banging noise if the shafts are broken, and a visual inspection will confirm this.
4. If steps 1-3 do not diagnose the problem, then the problem could be internally with the gears.

Logic Tree—General Overview

Motor and Transmission Removal Procedures

Safety Equipment:
Safety glasses
Properly-rated electrical safety gloves
Electrical tape

Tool Box:
Metric tool set
Chisels or flat-head screwdrivers
Pneumatics (optional)
Transmission jack or jack stands
Subframe assembly plate (optional)
Ball-joint separator

The front wheel propulsion for the Miles ZX40S is provided by a transaxle assembly combination of the XQ-6.3/6H DC traction motor and a 4-speed manual transmission, which is permanently locked into second gear. The XQ-6.3/6H traction motor weighs 137 lbs. The transmission weights approximately 100 lbs and has a capacity of 2.113 quarts.

· Use proper vehicle lifting methods set forth by both the lift manufacturer and the lift procedures already established in the Lifting Module of this course.
· The use of pneumatics is allowed on everything except for the batteries and the motor.

Removal Procedures:
1. Disconnect the auxiliary 12-volt battery.
2. Disconnect the master disconnect.
SAFETY NOTE: Cover the exposed terminals to prevent shock hazards. Use electrical tape or terminal boot cap.
SAFETY NOTE: Cover the positive and negative cables to prevent electrical shock.
3. Disconnect the steering universal joint at the floor boards.
NOTE: Make sure to fully remove the bolt and position the boot back over the joint for easier lifting.
4. Lift vehicle.
NOTE: Use safe lifting procedures (see Lifting Module).
5. Remove front wheels.
6. Disconnect lower control arm.
7. Disconnect steering box tie rod ends from the steering knuckle.
NOTE: DO NOT reuse the castle nuts or cotter pins.
8. Remove sway bar.
NOTE: There is no need to remove or loosen the shock mount bolts or suspension bolts.
WARNING! If you remove the knuckle from the shock mounts, you will need to reset the toe in and out, as well as caster and camber angles.
9. Remove peen nut from axle shaft.
NOTE: Remove peen with either a chisel or flat-head screwdriver. DO NOT reuse this nut.
10. Remove half shafts from the steering knuckle.
11. Remove the front fascia.
SAFETY NOTE: Place a meter set to measure DC Volts on all of the motor wires to make sure there is no residual voltage.
12. Label and remove the motor wires.
13. Remove wiring harness from transmission.
14a. Method One: Place four jack stands under motor and transmission.
NOTE: Make sure that the sub-assembly is supported with a jack before proceeding. Make sure the jacks are properly aligned to support the motor and transmission.
14b. Method Two: Place the sub-assembly plate (see Service Manual for information) on transmission jack.
NOTE: Make sure that the plate is supported by the transmission jack before proceeding. Make sure the jack is properly aligned to support the motor and transmission.
15. Both methods are the same for the rest of the procedures. Lower the vehicle until it comes in contact with the jack set up.
NOTE: At this time, make sure plate or jacks are level and aligned properly before proceeding. Make sure jack or stands have not slipped!
NOTE: Make sure everything that was listed above was removed and that the plate is stable and secure before proceeding.
16. Remove the four sub-assembly mounting bolts.
17. Slowly raise the vehicle until the subframe assembly separates from the car.
NOTE: It is important you make sure steering shaft separates from the universal joint in the car as it is lifted.
WARNING! If steering shaft does not separate from knuckle, damage to steering box will occur!
NOTE: Have a second person keep an eye on the sheering shaft and the plate to make sure the sub-assembly will separate cleanly.
18. Lift car two inches. Inspect steering box for freedom, raise two inches, and repeat inspection to ensure steering box is not strained or damaged.
NOTE: Once the vehicle is at the desired height, place a support under the rear of the vehicle.
19. With the subframe on the floor, remove either the motor or the transmission.
20. Disconnect the mounting bolts and remove the desired part.
21. Install the new motor or transmission and reverse the above procedures to install the subframe assembly back into the car.

In order to separate the motor from the transmission, you do not need to drain the transmission fluids. Remove casing bolts to slide units apart. The transmission and motor are connected with a splined-shaft. The tolerance of this connection is small.
Carefully slide the unit apart to avoid damage to the splined shafts.
The torque of the high-voltage connections should be checked every 3,000 miles or every six months, whichever occurs first.

Installation Torque:
· SAFETY NOTE: The use of a threadlocker is prohibited.
· Motor to transmission -- 50 ft-lbs
· Subframe bolts -- 60 ft-lbs
· Electrical connections -- 16 ft-lbs
· Stabilizer bar to subframe -- 40 ft-lbs
· Stabilizer bar to lower control arm -- 60 ft-lbs
· Steering tie-rod end to steering knuckle -- 30 ft-lbs
· Lower control arm to stabilizer bar -- 70 ft-lbs
· Lower control arm to steering knuckle -- 30 ft-lbs
· Axle hub nut -- 160 ft-lbs
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