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Old 05-04-2019, 07:25 PM   #71 (permalink)
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Natural gas is one of the few reliable sources of income for the state.
These wind turbines and solar panels are not going to miracle them selves into existence.
Glass and concrete use a lot of natural gas.
Aluminum and glass manufacture are pretty energy intensive about 300 kwh worth of energy to make the aluminum and glass plus what ever it take to make the cells in a 220 to 240 watt panel.
Each Wind turbine uses concrete and fiber glass by the ton.

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Old 05-04-2019, 08:55 PM   #72 (permalink)
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Quote:
Glass and concrete use a lot of natural gas.
Good reason not to use them. Peskovite solar cells printed on EFTE and structural members made by marine electrodeposition would get you to the same place.
Quote:
Each Wind turbine uses concrete and fiber glass by the ton.
Basalt fiber blades and rebar in the [carbon-negative] concrete. Why not?
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Old 05-05-2019, 06:14 AM   #73 (permalink)
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[T]he production of cement alone accounts for 5 percent of human-generated carbon dioxide emissions, surpassed only by some very obvious culprits, including the burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation, transportation, and the manufacture of iron and steel
https://home.howstuffworks.com/home-...ive-cement.htm

I always heard how bad concrete was, but never thought about how sand and gravel were probably not the culprits. So, the key ingredient in [the inappropriately-named] aircrete and compressed earth blocks?

Aside from hopefully transporting less material, they do not sound much better.

"In total, the traditional approach to making Portland cement emits almost 1,800 pounds (816 kilograms) of carbon dioxide for each ton of cement made."

"Adding carbon dioxide to the cement that would otherwise be emitted into the atmosphere makes it carbon negative. Indeed, Novacem believes that each ton of cement produced could actually absorb one-tenth of a ton of carbon dioxide."

So, we need carbon-capture on cement plants, as well as coal power. Is that easier than replacing both?

If 17% of cement production becomes Novacem, it would break even.

They also mention a company called Calera in California that, by 2011, had received backing from the federal Department of Energy and prominent venture capitalist. They "take the carbon dioxide emissions being spewed out of a power plant and mix them with water and other ingredients in order to make carbonates that go into cement. Calera already has a pilot operation in California and, in 2011, announced an arrangement to build a cement factory next to a coal plant in China." https://home.howstuffworks.com/home-...ve-cement1.htm

Where has this gone in eight years?

"Between 2011 and 2013, China used more cement than the United States used in all of the 20th century." https://grist.org/sponsored/the-brea...limate-change/

I wanted good news!

Blue Planet, also in the fantasy land of California, also captures carbon and makes calcium carbonate, but they do not superheat it to make cement, that would release the carbon (which they are fully capable of capturing), they turn it into aggregate.

"Every ton of Blue Planet’s synthetic limestone contains 440 kilograms of CO2."

Who the heck mixes systems?!

Every 907.18kg contains 440 kg of CO˛
Every ton contains 970.03lb of CO˛

That is 48.5%, better than I have earned in some classes!

Is making Portland cement and capturing the carbon cheaper than capturing carbon, making BP cement, and capturing the carbon again?

They could make the aggregate from carbon captured from the cement!

"The annual use of aggregate is over 50 billion tons and growing fast."
"Constantz expects to open its first commercial production facility in the Bay Area within the year, producing a little over 300,000 tons of rock annually with C02 captured from an adjacent power plant’s exhaust stack."

You need to start somewhere!

"The Foundation for Climate Restoration estimates that getting 30,000 Blue Planet plants running by 2030 would create enough CO2 removal capacity to remove all the excess CO2 from the atmosphere."

CarbonCure, from the land of maple and Horton's, injects CO˛ into fresh concrete, trapping it forever, and reducing the need for concrete because it increases the compressive strength. https://money.cnn.com/2018/06/12/tec...ure/index.html

"Atlanta-based Thomas Concrete, a concrete producer, has been using CarbonCure's system since 2016. Thomas Concrete says it has since prevented 10 million pounds of CO2 emissions."

"Thomas Concrete pays to use CarbonCure and buys captured CO2 from a fertilizer plant where it's emitted, but the company says those costs even out with what they save by using less cement."

Hey!

Also, farming is bad for the environment! Good thing Big Cement is here to save the day!

Quote:
A new mixed-use development in one of Atlanta's trendiest neighborhoods, called 725 Ponce, is a real-life example of the impact of building with greener concrete. When it opens in 2019, it will become the largest structure ever made with CarbonCure concrete. Ultimately, the 360,000 sq. ft. office building, which will have a Kroger supermarket on the first floor, will save 1.5 million pounds in CO2 from being released into the air -- the same amount 800 acres of forest would sequester in a year, according to Gamble.
That is one and a quarter square miles.

Except... a forest would do that year after year, but they construct buildings year after year, too...

90 concrete plants in the US and Canada are using their technology. There are an estimated 5,500 plants in the US alone.

Quote:
Other experts have pointed out that concrete naturally absorbs carbon dioxide. It's a slow process, but over the course of decades, it may be able to soak up a substantial amount of the emissions it put into the atmosphere in the first place via the limestone heating process.

A 2016 paper in Nature Geoscience suggested that the world's concrete has been absorbing about 43 percent of those original emissions.
https://www.scientificamerican.com/a...co2-emissions/

Well, once again freebeard casually mentioned something, and I spent at least an hour researching it.
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Old 05-05-2019, 12:07 PM   #74 (permalink)
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Nimby wackos blocked the first commercially viable CO2 capture project because they would have had to build a pipe line in Colorado to pipe the CO2 to texas or Oklahoma.
So blocking a pipe line is more important than attempting the first commercially viable carbon dioxide capture technology.
That's how I know they aren't really that afraid of what CO2 does to the planet.
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Old 05-06-2019, 04:01 PM   #75 (permalink)
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Here in the NY border counties with Pennsylvania we are disgusted with the fracking ban in the Marcellus shale. Our air and water quality is very good. The ineptitude and malice of political machinations of the NYC eco-bullies is unacceptable. Pollution and land usage are serious topics to be examined closely. Based on my technical training and experience in Quality Assurance I am skeptical of psuedo science claims that cannot be independently verified. I want to avoid policies solely designed for social control. I am encouraged that ecomodders are doing useful research.
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Old 05-06-2019, 07:05 PM   #76 (permalink)
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Xist
Well, once again freebeard casually mentioned something, and I spent at least an hour researching it.
Marine electrodeposition is outside your Overton window?

I have the original IEEE paper by Wolf Hilbertz and I talked to him on the phone back in the day. He couldn't say much because he was in cut-throat business discussions with the concrete industry — "And, I do mean cut-throat!". I'll never forget. I wished him well and he later fled to Germany.

If you follow the DDG search you find https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/view...&context=icdcs
Quote:
Electrodeposition as a crack-repair method was originally developed in Japan during the late 1980s by the Harbor Research Institute and Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd (Yokoda, Sasaki, & Fukute, 1992). An outline of the application of the electrodeposition method to close cracks in reinforced concrete members in marine environments is shown in Figure 1.
But the publication date of the IEEE paper is July, 1979. Don't get fooled.

Anyways, replace concrete with steel reinforced coral.


https://66.media.tumblr.com/2d87c018...9lylo1_500.jpg

[Waterworld?]

edit:
Here's his manifesto from 1991
Quote:
W Hilbertz Manifesto 1991
Global environmental change results from complex interactions of a set of natural, scientific, engineering, political, economic and social implications. Growing and decomposing, maintenance, repair, and reclamation of the physical environment are part of this. Understanding and enhancing life processes and tenderly working and marshalling natural cycles (i.e. carbon, oxygen, nitrogen) is the strategy, keeping our largest life-support system as original and sound as possible. To achieve this, the following categorical imperatives are stated:
1 Only renewable or alternative energy should be used to provide building materials, construct, maintain, and recycle structures.
2 Building materials should have thermodynamically low or low-to-moderate states of energy.
3 Building materials should store the maximum amount of carbon and possibly other greenhouse gases for prolonged periods.
4 Structures building materials should increasingly be grown by artificial/natural or natural means only, supporting biodiversity during the growth phase, during their life cycles, and during and after recycling.
5 Aside from the processes used for building material production, processes that generate building materials and H2 are preferable to those that do not.
6 Cybernetics and artificial intelligence has to be integral part of the above to ensure ecological contextual system efficiency and evolution
7 Sustainable evolution in nature, environmental development, and architecture is the goal.
From Hilbertz, W.H., ‘Solar-generated Artificial and Natural Construction Materials and World Climate, Natural Structures: Principles, Strategies, and Models’ in Architecture and Nature, SFB 230, University Stuttgart and University Tuebingen, 2, 119-127 (1992).
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Old 05-06-2019, 08:16 PM   #77 (permalink)
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IMO these places that ban now will ultimately use their reserves. The climate change will never amount to much and 100 years from now they will be sitting on the last reserves. The prices will go so high they will put rigs in international waters and frack in right out from under Scotland if they don't do it themselves. We will start liquefying coal as well. The only thing that's going to stop fossil fuel use is using it all up.
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Old 05-06-2019, 08:49 PM   #78 (permalink)
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World population has doubled since 1970 due to vast availability of carbon energy. To turn our backs on it now and decide to get by with less luxury is a very unpopular concept and very difficult.
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Old 05-06-2019, 09:58 PM   #79 (permalink)
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Those who could afford to slash carbon usage are vastly outnumbered by those who can't.
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Old 05-06-2019, 11:28 PM   #80 (permalink)
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Asteroids are of two types metallic and carbonaceous.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Wikipedia
C-type asteroid
C-type asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids. They are distinguished by a very low albedo because their composition includes a large amount of carbon, in addition to rocks and minerals.
We just have to go get it.


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